Teacher Training in Pakistan: Overview of Challenges and their Suggested Solutions
Education is a key component of progress in the present-day world. But this progress cannot be made without efforts of teachers. Therefore, teacher education, in particular teacher training becomes extremely important. In this regard, several trainings programs are initiated and executed across Pakistan but the desired outcomes have not been achieved so far. Hence, this study was conducted to explore the challenges in teacher training in Pakistan and the ways through which these issues can be resolved. The sources for the data of the study were the published studies in the field in the context of Pakistan, national education policy, and other relevant literature. Based on secondary data, the study concludes that the issues with teacher training in Pakistan are administrative as well as faculty related. The findings reveal that the challenges related to policy and planning, poor induction of teachers, lack of resources in teacher training institutions, demotivation among teachers, and unequal distribution of skilled and productive teachers, dual training system and infrequent trainings. These issues can be fixed by fostering encouraging environment, ensuring accountability and merit, providing necessary resources, systematizing professional training programs and their continuation. The findings of this study will, therefore, positively guide policymakers to develop the right and effective policy to improve the standard of teacher education in the country.
Ahmad, I. (2014). Critical analysis of the problems of education in Pakistan: Possible solutions. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 3(2), 79-84.
Ahmad, I., Rauf, M., Rashid, A., ur Rehman, S., & Salam, M. (2013). Analysis of the problems of primary education system in Pakistan: Critical review of literature. Academic Research International, 4(2), 324.
Aziz, F. and M. M. S. Akhtar (2014). Impact of training on teachers competencies at higher education level in Pakistan. Researchers World, 5(1), 121.
Bashiruddin, A. and R. Qayyum (2014). Teachers of English in Pakistan: Profile and recommendations. NUML Journal of Critical Inquiry, 12(1), 1.
Bauer, J. and M. Prenzel (2012). European teacher training reforms. Science, 336(6089), 1642-1643.
Chudgar, A., Chandra, M., & Razzaque, A. (2014). Alternative forms of teacher hiring in developing countries and its implications: A review of literature. Teaching and Teacher Education, 37, 150-161.
Collin, S., Karsenti, T., & Komis, V. (2013). Reflective practice in initial teacher training: Critiques and perspectives. Reflective practice, 14(1), 104-117.
Creemers, B., Kyriakides, L., & Antoniou, P. (2012). Teacher professional development for improving quality of teaching. Springer.
Darling-Hammond, L. (2012). Powerful teacher education: Lessons from exemplary Programs. John Wiley & Sons.
DeMonte, J. (2013). High-quality professional development for teachers: Supporting teacher training to improve student learning. Center for American Progress.
Farah, A. M. S., Fauzee, O., & Daud, Y. (2016). A cursory review of the importance of teacher training: A case study of Pakistan. Middle Eastern Journal of Scientific Research, 21(6), 912-917.
Farah, K., Fauzee, O. M. S., & Daud, Y. (2014). Teacher training education programme in three
Muslim Countries-Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan. Journal of Education and Human Development, 3(2), 729-741.
Freeman, J., Simonsen, B., Briere, D. E., & MacSuga-Gage, A. S. (2014). Pre-service teacher training in classroom management: A review of state accreditation policy and teacher preparation programs. Teacher Education and Special Education, 37(2), 106-120.
Gopang, I. B. (2016). Teacher education and professional development programs in Pakistan. The International Journal of Research in Teacher Education 7(1): 1-14.
Hanushek, E. A. and S. G. Rivkin (2012). The distribution of teacher quality and implications for policy. Annu. Rev. Econ. 4(1): 131-157.
Hassi, A. (2012). Islamic perspectives on training and professional development. Journal of Management Development 31 (10): 1035-1045.
Hussein, S. and P. Vostanis (2013). Teacher training intervention for early identification of common child mental health problems in Pakistan. Emotional and behavioural difficulties 18(3): 284-296.
Jumani, N. B. and F. Abbasi (2015). Teacher education for sustainability in Pakistan. Journal on Innovation and Sustainability RISUS 6(1): 13-19.
Maharjan, S. (2012). Association between work motivation and job satisfaction of college teachers. Administration and Management Review 24(2): 45-55.
Majoka, M. I., Fazal, S., & Khan, M. S. (2013). Implementation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Education Course: A Case from Teacher Education Institutions in Pakistan. Bulletin of Education and research, 35(2), 37-53.
Mincu, M. E. (2015). Teacher quality and school improvement: what is the role of research? Oxford Review of Education 41(2): 253-269.
Mulenga, I. M. (2020). Teacher education versus teacher training: Epistemic practices and appropriate application of both terminologies. Journal of Lexicography and Terminolog 04 (01): 105-126.
Osler, A. and H. Starkey (2017). Teacher education and human rights. Routledge.
Pakistan, G. o. (2017). National Education Policy. Retrieved from
Saeed, M., Ahmad, I., Salam, M., Badshah, R., Ali, S., & Haq, S. (2013). Critical analysis of problems of school teachers in Pakistan: Challenges and possible solutions. Journal of education and practice, 4(4), 169-175.
Siddiqui, K. A. (2020). Analysis of Pakistan’s national curriculum for english: a learner centered ideology perspective. University of Chitral Journal of Linguistics & Literature 4(I), 23-30.
Siddiqui, K. A. (2020). Analyzing factors influencing the paragraph organization in english language writing of intermediate students. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 32(1), 99-106.
Statistics, P. E. (2013). National education management information system NEMIS: academy of education planning and management AEPAM. Government of Pakistan.
Uusiautti, S. & Määttä, K. (2013). Significant trends in the development of finnish teacher training education programs (1860-2010). Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21 (59), 01-22.
Yasin, F. and M. Jani (2013). Islamic education: The philosophy, aim, and main features. International Journal of Education and Research, 1(10), 1-18.
Copyright (c) 2021 IJORER : International Journal of Recent Educational Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The copyright of the received article once accepted for publication shall be assigned to the journal as the publisher of the journal. The intended copyright includes the right to publish the article in various forms (including reprints). The journal maintains the publishing rights to the published articles.